Finished Goods

Those goods that are completed by the manufacturing process and are ready to be sold to the retailers or end customers are called ‘Finished Goods’.

However, once the finished goods are sold they are called merchandise.

‘Finished goods’ or ‘Finished product’ is a term specifically used by manufacturers.

A retailer houses all the finished goods in his store, therefore, he doesn’t have the need to classify his inventory into raw materials, work in process or finished goods. Hence, the products sold by a retailer are called merchandise. Whereas the manufacturers have to produce and manage inventory of all the goods, no matter which stage of production they are – raw materials, WIP, or finished goods.


Wikipedia defines Finished Goods as below:

When the good is completed as to manufacturing but not yet sold or distributed to the end-user, it is called a “finished good”.

This is the last stage for the processing of goods. The goods are ready to be consumed or distributed. There is no processing required in terms of the goods after this stage by the seller.

However, in the supply chain management flow the finished goods of one supplier can be a raw material for another manufacturer and hence, finished goods is a relative term.

How to calculate Finished Goods?

Calculating Finished Goods can be a daunting task. However, here’s a simple formula that will make it easy for you.

Finished goods at the beginning of year + Finished goods produced − Finished goods sold

= Finished goods at the end of a year

For example, Diamond Manufacturers are into manufacturing swimming products like swimsuits.

Now, to calculate how much worth of Finished Goods is lying in your warehouse or manufacturing unit, you need to refer to the last balance sheet from there you will get the worth of beginning stock.

Let us say for instance, you have $10000 worth of unsold swimsuits in your warehouse at the start of the year. Due to the extended summer season, the swimsuits were in great demand and therefore, the retailers bought them in great numbers. So, you produced swimsuits worth $40000. Now you managed to sell $45000 worth of swimsuits this year.

Now as per the formula: 

$10000 + $40000 – $45000 = $5000

Therefore, you have worth $5000 finished goods lying in your warehouse this year.

Why is it important to calculate Finished Goods

  1. One of the main reasons why calculating the ending finished goods is because to make the production strategies for the upcoming year or month.
  2. If the finished goods are not counted at the end of a fixed time period then, the manufacturer will have no clue on how much is to be produced and therefore, might end up overproducing the products. Over producing or overstocking can prove to be detrimental for any business.
  3. In the absence of ending finished goods count, the manufacturer might go slow in producing the next batch thinking he has produced more than enough last month. This thought can lead to the underproduction of items and again prove detrimental to the business.

Hence, It is crucial for any manufacturer to calculate the finished goods inventory on a regular basis to avoid overstocking or understocking.

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